Coptic textiles characterized by 'S-twist' of thread. They would wash wool fibers in hot water & wood ash soap & then dry them. Next, they would beat out dirt & card linen, silk & woolen fibers. The fiber was then graded, bleached & spun into thread. Spinners would pull out fibers and twist them together. This was done by either rolling fibers between palms or using a hooked stick. The Copt weavers also invented flying shuttle technique, which uses second shuttle to weave in an extra linen weft.