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Karl Dönitz relentlessly trained his crews knowing that u-boats would be Germany's principal naval weapon in any future conflict. His views frequently brought him into conflict with other German naval leaders, such as Erich Raeder, who believed in the expansion of the Kriegsmarine's surface fleet. He vigorously advocated for using groups of U-boats, known as "wolf packs," to attack the Atlantic convoys that were resupplying Britain.
Alexandru Ioan Cuza .Opposition from the large-land-owners dominated parliament to Cuza resulted in a coup against him in 1864. He subsequently instituted authoritarian rule but his popular support, strong at the time of the coup, gradually waned as the land reform failed to bring prosperity to the peasant majority.