Preload is the stretch. The amount of volume being returned to the right side of the heart from systemic circulation. Afterload is the squeeze. The amount of resistance the left side of the heart has to overcome in order to eject blood.
The illustration shows the ankle-brachial index test. The test compares blood pressure in the ankle to blood pressure in the arm. As the blood pressure cuff deflates, the blood pressure in the arteries is recorded.
Common changes in the lipid profile amongst the autoimmune rheumatic disease and their impact on atherosclerotic plaque formation. LDL: Low density lipoproteins, TG: Triglycerides, Lp(a): Lipoprotein (a), Anti-LPL: anti-Lipoprotein Lipase, HDL: high density lipoproteins, ApoA1: Apolipoprotein A1, Anti-APL: anti phospholipid.