Spiral stairs in medieval times were generally made of stone and typically wound in a clockwise direction (from the ascenders point of view), to place attacking swordsmen (who were most often right-handed) at a disadvantage. This asymmetry forces the right-handed swordsman to engage the central pike and degrade his mobility compared with the defender who is facing down the stairs.
The funerary complex of Djoser (Zoser) is believed to have been built around the beginning of the 3rd Dynasty. It is a walled compound that is constructed from stone rather than the mud brick. Imhotep was the architect of this revolutionary wonder. He was later worshiped as a god for the remarkable craftsmanship in the complex. Imhotep translated into stone the early Egyptian architecture of mud-brick, wood and reeds. This is seen in many of the monuments that are in the complex.