ROMAN Legionary iron and bronze helmet of the Mainz- Weisenau type (side view). Many of the appliques had a purpose other than decorative: they helped reinforce the helmet and deflect blows.
Image 1: Greek bronze winged helmet of PHRYGIAN-CHALCIDIAN type, 4th cent. BCE. The crown has a raised peak surmounted by a spiked crest, a palmette in relief at the back bordered by spiral tendrils, a tendril spiraling out to each side surmounted by lotus blossoms, the neck-guard with a separately-made protective edge with volutes at each end, plume holders in the form of coiled snakes on either side of the central crest. See image 2 for further description.
Roman mask helmet, 1st 2nd century CE. These are often called 'parade' helmets for cavalry sports use, but it has been suggested that they were also used in combat. The psychological effect of being charged by one of these masked warriors would have been formidable. A living statue, god-like and terrifying.
The Nijmegen Helmet is an Ancient Roman helmet, found in a gravel bed on the left bank of Waal river, near the Dutch city of Nijmegen in 1915. The helmet would have been worn by the elite Roman cavalry. The head portion of the helmet is made of iron, while the mask and diadem are of bronze or brass. The helmet has a neck-protecting projecting rim, overlaid with a thin bronze covering plated with silver. The diadem features two male and three female figures.